Mr. Sexton's Science Outpost

Nature is worth knowing.

Category: Chemistry

Related to the study of matter and energy

Resources

Cartoon drawing of Mr. Sexton feverishly writing notes with a test-tube of purple liquid in one hand, and a chalkboard full of equations in the background.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Updated: February 2, 2015 — 3:15 pm

Chemistry – Unit 05

Chemical Bonds and Compounds

Graphane

 

Ions
Ionic Bonds and Compounds
Metallic Bonding and Alloys
Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds
VSEPR and Molecular Geometry
Intermolecular Forces
Names and Formulas

 

 


 

areyoupositive

 

 

05.01 – Ions


 

[embed width= “400” height= “500”]http://youtu.be/1Ou1bIDn1xE[/embed]

 

05.02 – Ionic Bonds and Compounds

 

bondmmal

 

05.03 – Metallic Bonding and Alloys


 

 

 

 

05.04 – Covalent Bonding and Molecular compounds

You can click and rotate this 3-D model of a mixture of three different molecular compounds: caffein, ethanol, and water.

About/Help
Updated: April 17, 2015 — 10:09 am

Chemistry – Unit 04

Electrons and the Periodic Table of Elements

atom-quantum

 

 

 

 


 

 

04.01 – The Electromagnetic Spectrum

EM_Spectrum3-new

 


 

04.02 – Photon Emission and Absorption

emissionspectrumFe

 

 


 

 

 

04.03 – Quantum Mechanicsspdf

 


 

 

04.04 – The Periodic Table of Elementsspdf

Updated: February 27, 2017 — 9:41 am

Chemistry – Unit 03

Atomic Structure

 

atom

 

 

 

 


 

 

03.01 – Atomic Theoryatomtheory

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

03.02 – Models of Atomic Structure

atomic models

  • Textbook sec. 4.2
  • Video Lesson
  • Links & Files
      • Atoms Are Made of Subatomic Particles
      • Build an Atom!
      • J.J. Thomson showed that atoms are composed of smaller subatomic particles when he discovered the electron through experiments with cathode ray tubes. This lead to the development of the “Plum-Pudding” model of the atom.
      • Ernest Rutherford’s Gold-Foil experiments lead to a revision of the “Plum-Pudding” model where the positive charge is concentrated into a central nucleus that contains nearly all of the atom’s mass.

      • Here is a simulation showing an atomic scale view of the gold foil in Rutherford’s experiment. (Java)

        (A) The experimental setup for Rutherford’s gold foil experiment: A radioactive element that emitted alpha particles was directed toward a thin sheet of gold foil, which was surrounded by a screen that would allow detection of the deflected particles. (B) According to the plum pudding model (top) all of the alpha particles should have passed through the gold foil with little or no deflection. Rutherford found that a small percentage of alpha particles were deflected at large angles, which could be better explained by an atom that contained a very small, dense, positively-charged nucleus (bottom).

        (A) The experimental setup for Rutherford’s gold foil experiment: A radioactive element that emitted alpha particles was directed toward a thin sheet of gold foil, which was surrounded by a screen that would allow detection of the deflected particles. (B) According to the plum pudding model (top) all of the alpha particles should have passed through the gold foil with little or no deflection. Rutherford found that a small percentage of alpha particles were deflected at large angles, which could be better explained by an atom that contained a very small, dense, positively-charged nucleus (bottom).

     

 

 


 

 

03.03 – Differences Between Atoms

atoms

 

 

 


radioactive

03.04 – Nuclear Radiation

  •  Textbook sec. 25.1
  • Video Lesson
  • Links & Files
    • Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiation Types

 

The penetrating ability of three types of nuclear radiation: alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays

The penetrating ability of three types of nuclear radiation: alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays

 

 

 


mariecurie

 

 

03.05 – Nuclear Transformations

 

 

 

 

 

  • Textbook sec. 25.2
  • Video Lesson
  • Links & File
    • stabilityband

      Click this image to explore isotope stability.

      The Band of Nuclear Stability:
      Nuclei are unstable when they become very large, do not have enough neutrons, or have too many neutrons.  As the size of the nucleus increases, the ratio of neutrons to protons needs to be larger for the it to be stable.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

      • Radioactive Decay: Isotopes that fall outside of the band of stability will undergo transmutation by emitting radiation.  This radioactive decay transforms the isotope into a different element that falls within the band of stability.

     

     

 

 

 

 

 

 


nuclearpoweredTaskForce

03.06 – Nuclear Fission & Fusion

  • Textbook sec. 25.3
  • Video Lesson
  • Links & Files

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Unit 03 – Vocabulary Review

Updated: January 30, 2015 — 11:00 am

Chemistry – Unit 02

Matter and Change

match

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Zoroaster granite

This granite rock was formed 1.7 billion years ago when rising magma intruded into the bedrock beneath where the Grand Canyon later formed. As the magma cooled different minerals crystallized to create this heterogeneous mixture called Zoroaster granite.

02.01 – Classification of Matter

 

 

 


 

02.02 – Elements and Compounds

The elements sodium and chlorine combine to form the compound sodium chloride.

The elements sodium and chlorine combine to form the compound sodium chloride.

 

 

 

 


 

Precipitate reaction

The yellow precipitate, lead iodide, is produced in the reaction between clear solutions of lead nitrate and potassium iodide.

02.03 – Chemical & Physical Changes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Review – Unit 02 Vocabulary

Updated: October 24, 2014 — 10:38 am

Chemistry – Unit 01

Measurement and Scientific Methods

gradcyl

 

Laboratory Safety
Scientific Notation
Accuracy & Precision
Significant Digits (Sig. Figs.)
The Metric System
Conversion Problems (Dimensional Analysis)
Density
Scientific Methods

 

 


 

unsafeguy

01.00- Laboratory Safety

    • Textbook P.H. Chemistry pp R80-81
    • Video Lesson 
      • (You need an eduCanon account to receive credit for completing this assignment!  Use teacher code e31c9a to find Mr. Sexton’s course and add chemistry to your account.)
    • Links & Files

 


 

01.01 – Measurements and Their Uncertainty

  • Scientific notation

 


 

  • Accuracy & Precision

Measuring is like trying to consistently to hit a target.

    • Textbook P.H. Chemistry sec. 3.1
    • Video
    • Links & Files
      • Practice making accurate and precise measurements
      • [google-drive-embed url=”https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7Y3SRVfyyGFZzU4Y0dzZVU0Rms/edit?usp=drivesdk” title=”accuracy_precision_qlab.pdf” icon=”https://ssl.gstatic.com/docs/doclist/images/icon_10_pdf_list.png” newwindow=”yes” style=”normal”]
      • [google-drive-embed url=”https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7Y3SRVfyyGFeElSTFNIeXRKUGs/edit?usp=drivesdk” title=”Graduated_Cylinder_lab.pdf” icon=”https://ssl.gstatic.com/docs/doclist/images/icon_10_pdf_list.png” newwindow=”yes” style=”normal”]

 


sigfig

 

 


 

Sad and embarrassing! Liberia, Myanmar and the USA are the only remaining countries that have still not adopted the metric system.

Sad and embarrassing! Liberia, Myanmar and the USA are the only remaining countries that have still not adopted the metric system.

01.02 – The Metric System

    • Textbook sec. 3.2
    • Video
    • Links & Files
      • [google-drive-embed url=”https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7Y3SRVfyyGFalQxTkY5Nl93bnc/edit?usp=drivesdk” title=”metric prefixes.pdf” icon=”https://ssl.gstatic.com/docs/doclist/images/icon_10_pdf_list.png” newwindow=”yes” style=”normal”]

 

 

 

 


metric-only

 

01.03 – Conversion Problems (dimensional analysis)

 

 

 

 

 

 


cola-density

 

01.04 – Density

    • Textbook sec. 3.4
    • Video
    • Links & Files
      • Density Lab
      • Density Lab Graph  *To use this file you need to log in to your gmail account, then select ‘make a copy’ from the file menu.  After you type in a new name and click OK, the file will be added to your Google Drive files.  You can then edit the data and the graph will update itself.
      • Density lab final instructions

 

 

 

 


Climate_Change_Attribution

 

01.05 – Scientific Methods

Updated: October 1, 2014 — 1:00 pm

Chemistry

Student/Parent District Portal – check your grades

 

Interactive Chemistry Notebook

How to Build High-Scoring Connections Pages

Click here to print out a blank table-of-contents

Table of Contents for the current unit of study (scroll down for prior units):

[google-drive-embed url=”https://docs.google.com/document/d/1XxUAiI2CnA3knPAeIRAorJTIoA5nKHKdPly1if-FClw/preview” title=”TOCU6chem” icon=”https://ssl.gstatic.com/docs/doclist/images/icon_11_document_list.png” width=”96%” height=”960″ style=”embed”]

Course Calendar

 

Completed Units – Tables of Contents

[google-drive-embed url=”https://docs.google.com/document/d/1jNzvnA_736i7zpOeGlxdwNKeNmB0ezrw8m8lRYNWip4/preview” title=”TOCU5chem” icon=”https://ssl.gstatic.com/docs/doclist/images/icon_11_document_list.png” width=”96%” height=”960″ style=”embed”]

[google-drive-embed url=”https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Dy9TOoyNV4DnTa0ditIdy-n_Hz5psXlVdhn46NM2mU0/preview” title=”TOCU04chem” icon=”https://ssl.gstatic.com/docs/doclist/images/icon_11_document_list.png” width=”96%” height=”960″ style=”embed”]

[google-drive-embed url=”https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EZ6A3w0oHnFji-Ps8F_E-OTETuBSlP1OT8Iux0ZTQVk/preview” title=”TOCU3″ icon=”https://ssl.gstatic.com/docs/doclist/images/icon_11_document_list.png” width=”96%” height=”960″ style=”embed”]

[google-drive-embed url=”https://docs.google.com/document/d/1uP2WaSkKUzLlkz_LTpu5HqAQR087cS8Sk1peMlkguMQ/preview” title=”TOCU2chem” icon=”https://ssl.gstatic.com/docs/doclist/images/icon_11_document_list.png” width=”96%” height=”960″ style=”embed”]

 

[google-drive-embed url=”https://docs.google.com/document/d/1sAkmTZCBJSuRfkidblawRr4M8bniF7qC0YK4AGL9wmg/preview” title=”TOCU1chem” icon=”https://ssl.gstatic.com/docs/doclist/images/icon_11_document_list.png” width=”96%” height=”960″ style=”embed”]

Updated: February 27, 2017 — 12:21 pm

Match the Molecule

Here are images (DON’T READ THE CAPTIONS YET!) of three important biological macromolecules.

One of them is a nucleic acid.

One of them is a protein (the most abundant protein on Earth!).

One of them is a little bit of both, a ribonucleoprotein.

Can you guess which one is which before you read the captions?

Protein ribbon structure of Rubisco

Rubisco is the nickname of the protein Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase

Over the course of evolutionary time, regions of the ribosome in different species have been added while conserving the functional core.

Over the course of evolutionary time, regions of the ribosome in different species have been added while conserving the functional core.

The molecular structure of DNA is like a twisted ladder.

The double helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is like a twisted ladder where the sides of the ladder are composed of sugar and phosphate units linked by covalent bonds, and the rungs of the ladder are made of the four nitrogenous bases linked by hydrogen bonds.

Study Reveals Evolution of the Ribosome in New Detail

What good is DNA without a ribosome?  Considering how the ribosome has changed over the last 4 billion years gives insight to the crucial nature of its role in biology, the unity of all life, and the process of evolution.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140630164012.htm

In the new study, Williams and Research Scientist Anton Petrov compared three-dimensional structures of ribosomes from a variety of species of varying biological complexity, including humans, yeast, bacteria and archaea. The researchers found distinct fingerprints in the ribosomes where new structures were added to the ribosomal surface without altering the pre-existing ribosomal core from the last universal common ancestor.140630164012-large

For a video on the origins and evolution of the ribosome, visit:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ei6qGLBTsKM

Mr. Sexton's Science Outpost © 2014 Frontier Theme